Federal Network Agency

Sound and television broadcasting


Ton- und Fernsehrundfunk

The term "broadcasting" refers to the wireless transmission of sound, image and text information to the general public.

Today, broadcasting programmes are transmitted via antenna, broadband cable, satellite and the Internet. Broadcast engineering comprises the studio, programme transmission and transmit operation.

The following passages relate to terrestrial broadcast transmitters which broadcast their programmes over antennas.

The low frequency, medium frequency and high frequency stations form part of the amplitude modulated sound broadcasting transmitters established decades ago. The low frequency broadcasting range extends from 148.50 kHz to 283.50 kHz, the medium frequency broadcasting range from 526.50 kHz to 1606.50 kHz. High frequency broadcasting within the frequency range 2.3 MHz to 26.1 kHz on specific bands is designated by the appropriate wavelength, e.g. the 49, 41, 31 and 15-metre band. Low and medium-wave transmitters use radiated power levels of up to 2000 kW, high frequency transmitters use levels of up to 500 kW.

Analogue sound broadcasting on the low, medium and high frequency bands is eventually to be replaced by the digital transmission method DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) which is currently undergoing field trials.

The analogue VHF broadcast transmitters operating in the frequency range 87.5 MHz to 108.0 MHz are frequency modulated and use radiated power levels of up to 100 kW. In the long term, analogue VHF broadcasting will be superseded by the digital transmission mode DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) which is already being used in parallel. DAB transmitters currently use the frequency ranges 174 MHz to 230 MHz and 1452 MHz to 1492 MHz with radiated power levels of up to 10 kW.

German terrestrial TV transmitters are all digital and are based on the digital transmission mode DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial). Frequency ranges between 174 MHz and 230 MHz and between 470 MHz and 790 MHz are used. The radiated power levels range up to 100 kW.


Date of modification: 2010.07.14

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